National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Institute of Ukrainian Language of NAS
Institute of the Ukrainian Language of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Scientific journal Ukrainian Language is registered by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine as print media (Certificate: Series КВ № 12180 – 1064 ПР of January 12, 2007).
Included in the list of printed scientific specialized editions of Ukraine (Order of MES of Ukraine no528 from 12.05.2015)
Information about the author:
PhD student of Ukrainian Applied Linguistic Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Lviv, Ukraine)
Title: Medical terms with components hepat-, hepatic(o)-hepat(o)- and liver in modern Ukrainian language
Rubric: Branch Terminology
Abstract: Ukrainian medical terms-composites with international components hepat-, hepatic(o)-, hepat(o)- and Ukrainian equivalent liver have been studied in the article. The problem of their interchange has been brought up. It has been defined their productivity and word formation mobility.
The outlook of the article is that the terms with somatic components need further studying their productivity and mobility.
One of the biggest Ukrainian term systems is medical terminology. Its development has been caused by granting the Ukrainian language official status. The question of use of a term continue to be relevant today because medical terminology has not been studied enough as medical practice shows, for this reason physicians, scientists are trying to regiment and improve medical dictionaries, appealing for a help to linguists. General issues of formation of medical terms were and are important because most of them are loan words usually come from the Latin and Greek languages.
The basis for professional language of a medical worker is a use of professional terms of a high level of standardization, accuracy of formations, relevance and logic presentation. Medical lexis is one of the oldest term systems. It was formed both on the world and own language basis. Development and improvement of medical terminology can be observed through scientific papers, professional textbooks, and medical dictionaries.
The aim of the article: to characterize Ukrainian medical terms with somatic components hepat-, hepatic(o)-, hepat(o)- and Ukrainian equivalent liver according to semantic groups and relations; to identify their word formation mobility in the modern Ukrainian literary language. The object of research – medical terms with somatic components. The subject of research – their lexical and semantic features, peculiarities of terms with borrowing and national components. The material was taken from: “Dorlan’d Illustrated Medical Dictionary” (2007), “Ukrainian-Latin-English Explanatory Dictionary” edited by M.Pavlovskyi, L.Petruh, I.Holovko (1995), “Explanatory Dictionary of Medical terms” edited by N. Lytvynenko, N.Misnyk (2010), “New Dictionary of Loan Words” edited by L.Shevchenko, O.Niky, O.Khomyak, A.Demyanyuk (2008) and “ Dictionary of foreign words” by P.Shtep (1977).
Urgency of the research of terms with somatic components has been caused by the need to establish the specificity of somatic symbols and term composites and identify lexical and syntactic features words of such components. It is necessary to note that at the modern stage in the Ukrainian medical language there are medical terms that are made up of international term elements of Greek or Latin origin, as well as Ukrainian origin. Lexical items with somatic components exist only in the medical field. Somatic international components include: cardi(o)-, hema(o)-, hemat(o)-, ot(o)-, ophtalm(o), psych(o)-, hepat(o)-, hepatic(o)- and others. In the Ukrainian language such correspondent terms are: heart, blood, ear, eye, head, liver and others. Among the somatic components one can meet such archaisms as: mouth, forehead, finger.
Thus, words of the somatic components hepat-, hepatic(o)-, hepat(o)- and Ukrainian equivalent liver indicate: processes; names of diseases; belonging to the liver or action on it; people by profession, people; names of science; cell, classes.
Studied terms mainly correspond to these features because they are relevant to the concepts they indicate; also they are included into medical terminology, have clear definitions in the dictionary, they are stylistically neutral, but some of them do not meet monosemy (polysemy of such lexical terms are given) and synonymy (synonyms are given both for words of foreign origin and their Ukrainian equivalents). This can be explained by the fact that these requirements are desirable rather than real. Foreign language terms always look for equivalents among national lexical items. And polysemy shows the development of speech-term, but over time one of the definitions can get a new nomination.
Components hepat-, hepatic(o)-, hepat(o)- can not be combined directly with Ukrainian word stems and roots. Most components are components of foreign origin with particular lexical meaning which is preserved wholly or partly in derivative words. Words with hepat-, hepatic(o)-, hepat(o)- and liver are not interchangeable.
Samolysova A. and A. Nikolaev noted that “professional terminology should be unified and brought up to a user in a form that would require the least effort to use.” Medicine does not stay still, new methods of diagnosing diseases, alternative methods of treatment appear, so a need arises in formation of new terms, and unification of their grammatical structure. Medical terminology is a common goal both and medical workers and linguists. Let’s work on creating a generalized medical nomenclature.
Keywords: Ukrainian, medical somatic terms-composites, lexico-semantic groups, paradigmatic relations, productivity.
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