Information about the author: Candidate of Philological Sciences, Senior Researcher Lexicology, Lexicography and Structural and Mathematical Linguistics Department of the Ukrainian Language Institute of NAS of Ukraine.
Title: Term and lexicographic standard
Rubric: Terminography theory and practice of compiling branch dictionaries
Abstract: The article is devoted to the question of selecting a special (terminological) vocabulary for a comprehensive explanatory dictionary and its lexicographic normalization (standardization). Of particular relevance, this problem occurs today, when there is an active replenishment of the terminology in various fields of science, technology, production, etc. The language policy regarding the dynamic nature of the norms of the literary language consists in its codification – the establishment of rules of use in dictionaries and grammar. The main principle of graphic design of words in the dictionary of an interpretative type is the strict observance of the rules of the spelling. Independent standardization (bringing terminology to a single system) from the necessity of the first priority solving a number of problems caused by violations of the lexical general literary norm. The most typical spelling mistakes that occur in dictionaries are outlined, and the ways of overcoming them are proposed.
The combination of objective updating of the lexical structure with the consciously carried on by linguists subjective updating has become a specific feature of work on organization, codification and development of the Ukrainian vocabulary. In a chain of terms on the notation of the notion “bringing something into a uniform” there is a certain hierarchical subordination: systematization – normalization – unification – codification – standardization “observance of the only stable grammatical and stylistic norms on the national language”. The question of the place of special vocabulary in general dictionaries is one of the most difficult in modern lexicography, especially today, when there is an active replenishment of the vocabulary by terms of various branches of science, technology, production.
Theoretical lexicography substantiates the necessity of introducing terms into the register of explanatory dictionaries, which is the core of the terminology and at the same time a part of the literary language. Practical work on the dictionary reveals various tendencies in fixing the new words of the special vocabulary: from the aspiration of its full coverage to the reasoned selection. There are several main criteria for selecting terminological units for a general-purpose dictionary: 1) the social significance of the terms of science and technology; 2) structural features contributing to the term adaption by the system of literary language; 3) the scope of the special vocabulary.
The stable tendency of productivity growth of syntactic derivation in the Ukrainian language is noted – replenishment of the terminological fund by terms of phrases, and also the criteria of the selection of such multi-component phrases, their codification and standardization are outlined.
The main tendencies, which are traced in the new dictionaries, are noted. One of the most important is devoted to the foreign words entry into Ukrainian and problems connected with their spelling. Violations of spelling norms caused by wrong adaptation of borrowings in modern dictionaries are pointed out, and the negative influence of spelling mismanagement of borrowings on the functioning of the Ukrainian lexemes is emphasized. As a result, a well-considered way of building and normalizing the Ukrainian literary lexicon is the principle of a reasonable balance between tradition and the need for renewal.
Keywords: term, norm, standardization, spelling rules.
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