Information about the author: candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Ukrainian Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Department of Bohdan Khmelnytsky Cherkasy National University
Title: Semantic Ratio Between Terms in Search for the Isybislaw System: Grounds for Forming Equivalent Classes
Rubric: Terminology of Linguistic and Related Sciences
Abstract: The article analyzes the terminology of speech dynamics, in particular the semantic relation between the terms in the language of the search of the iSybislaw system: the names of the varieties of secondary nomination and semantic derivation. The specificity of semantic neologisms is that they express different types of derivative meanings, the development of which may occur primarily in a non-morphological way of word formation, which does not involve changing the form of the word. We classify semantic innovations as a new meaning in the semantics of an already existing word. Researchers of dynamic processes in lexicon, a new meaning of the present word, as a consequence of its semantic derivation, are distinguished as a kind of neologism. N. Z. Kottelova points to the existence of “neologisms-values” as emerging as a result of semantic derivations on the basis of metaphor and other transfers of nomination or verbal derivation, when the semantic neologism was formed morphologically.
In modern linguistic literature there are different classifications of the types of semantic changes that cause the derivation of the meanings of verbal units. The formal-semantic relation between the terms for the meaning of semantic changes in the language of the keywords of the iSybislaw information retrieval system represents not only duplicity, but also more and more meaningful differences in such terms, the need for their aspect of the article.
In our opinion, the specifics of semantic neologisms are that they express different types of derivative meanings, the development of which may occur primarily in a non-morphological way of word formation, which does not involve changing the form of the word. The varieties of semantic derivation are: metaphorical transfer, metonymy, expansion of meaning, narrowing, semantic shift (preservation of semantic volume).
The expansion and narrowing of the nominating volume are closely related to the processes of termination and determinism. Semantic traces are considered as part of semantic neologisms formed by verbal derivation on the basis of a common form of known values with new borrowings. The results of semantic changes may also be the improvements (reclamation) and deterioration (pejorations) of values (along with its narrowing or expansion); gain, hyper-semantic value; desemation. Semantic processes include the processes of depoliticization and deideologization of certain groups of words.
To display the semantic potential of vocabulary, it is extremely necessary not only to identify and describe the effects of semantic changes of different types, but also to unify the terminology of their designation, to develop a conceptual and methodical-procedural apparatus for their analysis, to determine the criteria for their normalization and codification for fixing in the Ukrainian dictionaries the register of new generation and future electronic thesaurus of Slavic linguistic terminology, the need for which is becoming increasingly clear to the developers of the iSybislaw system.
Keywords: language dynamics, semantic changes, iSybislaw, term, secondary nomination, semantic derivation.
- Apresyan, Yu.D. (1995). Leksicheskaja semantika [Lexical semantics]. Vol. 1 (in Rus.).
- Badeeva,E.Ya. (2005). Metonimiya imeni v obshchestvenno–politicheskoj leksike anglijskogo yazyka: kognitivnyj i pragmaticheskij aspekty [Metonymy of Name in English Political Lexicon: Cognitive and Pragmatic Aspects]. (Abstract of PhD thesis). Moskow (in Rus.).
- Beleckij, A.A. (1955). Ob internacionalizmah [On internationalism]. Naukovi zapysky zbirnyk filolohichnoho fakultetu. Vol. XIV, Issue II, 8, 59-80 (in Rus.).
- Gak, V. G. (1966). Besedy o francuzskom slove (Iz sravnitelnoj leksikologii francuzskogo i russkogo yazykov) [Conversations on a French Word (From the Comparative French – Russian Lexicology)]. Moskow (in Rus.).
- Ermakova, O.P. (2003). Semanticheskie oppozicii kak otrazhenie zhizni rossijskogo obshhestva v poslednie desjatiletija XX veka [Semantic Opposition as a Reflection of the Life of Russian Society in the Last Decades of the Twentieth Century]. Procesy innowacyjne w językach słowiańskich [Innovative processes in Slavic languages]. Warszawa: Slawistyczny ośrodek wydawniczy, (pp. 51-62). (in Rus.).
- Karpilovska, Ie.A., Kysliuk, L.P., Klymenko, N.F., Krytska, V.I., Puzdyrieva, T.K., Romaniuk, Yu.V. (2017). Vplyv suspilnykh zmin na rozvytok ukrainskoi movy [Influence of Social Change on the Development of the Ukrainian Language]. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi dim Dmytra Buraho (in Ukr.).
- Kotelova, N.Z. (1990). Neologizmy [Neologisms]. Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar’ [Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary]. (p. 331). (in Rus.).
- Kotelova,N.Z. (1988). Teoreticheskie aspekty leksikograficheskogo opisanija neologizmov [Theoretical Aspects of the Lexicographic Description of Neologisms]. Sovetskaja leksikografija [Soviet Lexicography]. (pp. 46-63). Moskow (in Rus.).
- Kulinich, I.A. (1990). Semanticheskaya derivaciya v russkoj leksike 60 – 80 godov i ee otrazhenie v neograficheskih i drugih leksikograficheskih istochnikah [Semantic Derivation in Russian Vocabulary of the 60s-80s And Its Reflection in Neographic and Other Lexicographic Sources]. (Abstract of PhD thesis). Kyiv (in Rus.).
- Lapshina,M.N. Semanticheskaya derivaciya v kognitivnom aspekte (na materiale anglijskogo yazyka) [Semantic Derivation in the Cognitive Aspect (Based on English)]. (Abstract of Doctoral theses). St. Petersburg (in Rus.).
- Nikitchenko,N.S. (1985). Semanticheskie neologizmy russkogo yazyka poslednih desyatiletij (na materiale slovarej novyh slov) [Semantic Neologisms in Russian Language over the Last Decades (Based on Dictionaries of New Words)]. (Abstract of PhD thesis). Leningrad (in Rus.).
- Paul’ G. (1960). Principy istorii jazyka [Principien der Sprachgeschichte]. Moskow: Inostrannaya literatura (in Rus.).
- Sokolov, O.M. (1972). Voprosy morfemno-semanticheskoj sootnositel’nosti v leksike russkogo jazyka: Materialy dlja speckursa. [Problems of Morphemic and Semantic Correlation in the Vocabulary of the Russian Language]. Tomsk (in Rus.).
- Taranenko, A.A.(1989). Jazykovaja semantika v ee dinamicheskih aspektah [Language semantics in its dynamic aspects]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Rus.).
- Telija, V.N. (1977.). Vtorichnaja nominacija i ee vidy. Jazykovaja nominacija: Vidy naimenovanij [Secondary Nomination and Its Types. Language Nomination. Types of Names]. (Vol. 2). (pp. 129-221). Moscow: Nauka (in Rus).
- Telija, V.N. (1981). Tipy jazykovyh znachenij: Svjazannoe znachenie slova v jazyke [Types of linguistic values. The meaning of a word in a language]. Moscow: Nauka (in Rus.).
- Bralczyka, J. i Mosiołek-Kłosińskiej (Ed.). Markowski, A. (2000). Jawne i ukryte nowsze zapożyczenia leksykalne w mediach [Explicit and Implicit New Lexical Borrowings in the Media]. Język w mediach masowych [Language in mass media]. Warszawa (pp. 96-111) (in Pol.).